The recommended raw materials to be used as input materials for the SYNGAS CONVERSION PLANT are:
The final product obtained from the SYNGAS CONVERSION PLANT is of a high quality fuel oil. More than 80% of the plastics in the input material is transformed into liquid fuel:
Cetane Number - 59.5 (ASTM D 613)
Euro lV standard's minimum requirement is 51
Premium quality diesel fuel has a reading of 60
Cetane Index - 57 (ASTM D 976)
Euro IV standard's minimum requirement is 46
Sulphur Content - 2ppm (ASTM D 4294)
Euro lV standard's maximum requirement is 50 ppm
Euro V standard is set at 10 ppm
Malaysia Diesel Oil reading is 300 ppm
Fuel oil is a fraction obtained from petroleum distillation, either as a distillate or a residue. Broadly speaking, fuel oil is any liquid petroleum product that is burned in a furnace or boiler for the generation of heat or used in an engine for the generation of power, except oils having a flash point of approximately 40 °C (104 °F) and oils burned in cotton or wool-wick burners. In this sense, diesel is a type of fuel oil. Fuel oil is made of long hydrocarbon chains, particularly alkanes, cycloalkanes and aromatics. The term fuel oil is also used in a stricter sense to refer only to the heaviest commercial fuel that can be obtained from crude oil, heavier than gasoline and naphtha.
The American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) has published specifications for six grades of fuel oil, numbered 1 through 6. This classification system was originally based on early refining and combustion engineering practices and nomenclature. Some specifications have changed over the years to reflect new refining practices and refinery by-products. Other organizations have published modified versions of the original six fuel specifications to assist operators of older equipment find appropriate fuels from current refinery products.
Although the following trends generally hold true, different organizations may have different numerical specifications for the six fuel grades. The boiling point and carbon chain length of the fuel increases with fuel oil number. Viscosity also increases with number, and the heaviest oil has to be heated to get it to flow. Price usually decreases as the fuel number increases.
Number 1 fuel oil is a volatile distillate oil intended for vaporizing pot-type burners. It is the kerosene refinery cut that boils off right after the heavy naphtha cut used for gasoline. Older names include coal oil, stove oil and range oil.
Number 2 fuel oil is a distillate home heating oil. Trucks and some cars use similar diesel fuel with a cetane number limit describing the ignition quality of the fuel. Both are typically obtained from the light gas oil cut. Gas oil refers to the process of distillation. Crude oil is heated, becomes a gas and then condenses.
Number 3 fuel oil was a distillate oil for burners requiring low-viscosity fuel. ASTM merged this grade into the number 2 specification, and the term has been rarely used since the mid 20th century.
Number 4 fuel oil is commercial heating oil for burner installations not equipped with preheaters. It may be obtained from the heavy gas oil cut.
Number 5 fuel oil is a residual-type industrial heating oil requiring preheating to 170 - 220 °F (77 - 104 °C) for proper atomization at the burners. This fuel is sometimes known as Bunker B. It may be obtained from the heavy gas oil cut, or it may be a blend of residual oil with enough number 2 oil to adjust viscosity until it can be pumped without preheating.
Number 6 fuel oil is a high-viscosity residual oil requiring preheating to 220 - 260 °F (104 - 127 °C). Residual means the material remaining after the more valuable cuts of crude oil have boiled off. The residue may contain various undesirable impurities including 2 percent water and one-half percent mineral soil. This fuel may be known as residual fuel oil (RFO), by the Navy specification of Bunker C, or by the Pacific Specification of PS-400.
Bunker Fuel - Small molecules like those in propane gas, naphtha, gasoline for cars, and jet fuel have relatively low boiling points, and they are removed at the start of the fractional distillation process. Heavier petroleum products like diesel and lubricating oil are much less volatile and distill out more slowly, while bunker oil is literally the bottom of the barrel; the only things more dense than bunker fuel are carbon black feedstock and bituminous residue which is used for paving roads (asphalt) and sealing roofs.
Diesel Fuel in general is any liquid fuel used in diesel engines. The most common is a specific fractional distillate of petroleum fuel oil, but alternatives that are not derived from petroleum, such as biodiesel, biomass to liquid (BTL) or gas to liquid (GTL) diesel, are increasingly being developed and adopted.
Petroleum fuel, or crude oil, is naturally found in the Earth. When crude oil is refined at refineries, it can be separated into several different kinds of fuels, including gasoline, jet fuel, kerosene and, of course, diesel.
If you have ever compared diesel fuel and gasoline, you know that they are different. They certainly smell different. Diesel fuel is heavier and oilier. Diesel fuel evaporates much more slowly than gasoline -- its boiling point is actually higher than the boiling point of water. You will often hear diesel fuel referred to as "diesel oil" because it is so oily.
Diesel fuel evaporates more slowly because it is heavier. It contains more carbon atoms in longer chains than gasoline does (gasoline is typically C9H20, while diesel fuel is typically C14H30). It takes less refining to create diesel fuel, which is why it used to be cheaper than gasoline. Since 2004, however, demand for diesel has risen for several reasons, including increased industrialization and construction in China and the U.S.
Diesel fuel has a higher energy density than gasoline. On average, 1 gallon (3.8 L) of diesel fuel contains approximately 155x106 joules (147,000 BTU), while 1 gallon of gasoline contains 132x106 joules (125,000 BTU). This, combined with the improved efficiency of diesel engines, explains why diesel engines get better mileage than equivalent gasoline engines.
Diesel fuel is used to power a wide variety of vehicles and operations. It of course fuels the diesel trucks you see lumbering down the highway, but it also helps move boats, school buses, city buses, trains, cranes, farming equipment and various emergency response vehicles and power generators. Think about how important diesel is to the economy -- without its high efficiency, both the construction industry and farming businesses would suffer immensely from investments in fuels with low power and efficiency. About 94 percent of freight -- whether it's shipped in trucks, trains or boats -- relies on diesel.
In terms of the environment, diesel has some pros and cons. The pros -- diesel emits very small amounts of carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons and carbon dioxide, emissions that lead to global warming. The cons -- high amounts of nitrogen compounds and particulate matter (soot) are released from burning diesel fuel, which lead to acid rain, smog and poor health conditions. On the next page we'll look at some recent improvements made in these areas.